History Of Climate Change Agreements
The history of climate policy and policy refers to the ongoing history of political action, policies, trends, controversies and activist efforts, as they relate to global warming and other environmental anomalies. Dryzek, Norgaard and Schlosberg suggest that critical thinking about the history of climate policy is necessary because it “provides a way to reflect on one of the most difficult problems that we humans have posed to us during our short life on the planet.”  The treaty recognized the existence of human-caused climate change and divided countries into three main groups, based on different commitments. In particular, it has entrusted the industrialised countries (the so-called Annex I parties) with the main responsibility for their struggle, without specifying how. At the beginning of the 21st century, policy approaches shifted from mitigation to reducing the environmental impact of human behaviour towards adaptation.  Adaptation-based policy focuses on adapting environmental and human systems to respond to the predicted effects of global warming.  According to Klein, Schipper and Dessai, adaptation is needed to account for permanent changes in the human environment that cannot be reversed independently of mitigation attempts.  Haibach and Schneider propose that climate policy should continue to move towards “crisis management and preventive measures.”  Ford also notes that the UNFCCC has evolved to address “exposure to the predicted effects of climate change” by emphasizing the need for adaptation.  It is now an integral part of the political agenda and, in 2019, the House of Commons has declared a “climate emergency”. It is also perhaps the most pressing long-term challenge facing governments around the world. Since 1992, when the United Nations recognized climate change as a serious issue, negotiations between countries have produced remarkable agreements, including the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
But the heads of state and government have struggled to maintain the momentum and have failed to slow the rise in global temperature. The UNFCCC is chaired by the Conference of the Parties (COP), which meets annually and serves as the basis for the evolution of the global climate effort. Doha negotiators for COP18 extend the Kyoto Protocol until 2020, but the remaining participants account for only 15% of global greenhouse gas emissions. At this point, Canada has withdrawn from the treaty and Japan and Russia say they will not accept new commitments. (The United States never registered.) Environmental groups criticize the failure of countries to reach an effective agreement because Typhoon Bopha is shaking the Philippines, which they say is an example of an increase in extreme weather conditions due to climate change. One of the success stories of the conference is the Doha Amendment, in which developed countries agree to help developing countries mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change.